küche wohnzimmer durchbruch

küche wohnzimmer durchbruch

are spacecraft designed to operate within the earth's atmosphere every two minutes of waiting one of them weighing more than 200 tonnes to fly at a speed close to the sound music although we are no longer surprised to see them fly are some of the most powerful machines


and complex world m commercial aircraft modern wonders washington spring of 1967 in these three square kilometers there was only trees and stones in less than six months had become a small technological city taken by


an army of 20,000 men and women under the orders of the beret aircraft company his mission was to build the plane largest subsonic trade and fast of all times capable of transport 350 passengers to more than 950 100km/h. its name 747 the 747 meant a great


technological advance even for an industry that grows in geometric progression and guachi cou wipro in debt is usually not normal for a new aircraft to be 150% larger than its predecessor the president of boeing bilal in assigned the address the project to your vice president mail stamper asked


is to see how to build and the plane of the world and from that they are per se to the project the 747 project required the design and manufacturing 270,000 tools but the first to be used were welders or riveters but chainsaws and bulldozers


the project required so much space that there was not enough building where they could work and there was build 172 kilometers north of 7 three square kilometers cleared of a forest near an aerodrome abandoned from the second world war was installed an auxiliary line of 3,200-meter railway to carry


to the plant the materials of construction 34 thousand tons of steel they arrived by train to raise the structure of the largest building in world of 5 million and a half meters cubic then the road served to bring pieces of 20 thousand contractors of all the united states and eight countries


foreign in the assembly were used more than four million pieces numbered and cataloged in the five years of work was spent 5 billion dollars in engineering labor was invested 10 million hours of work and it took 14 thousand hours testing in the wind tunnel


the first steps were taken in 1965 when the president of pan american airlines when it contributed to the project 250 millions of dollars as payment of 20 units of the gigantic plane in the spring of 1967 with a plant still finally, huge pre-assembled parts the oim called it the avalanche of


aluminium his team but also had his own nickname temperley called the amazing stickers vangioni in helmets and in terms of food and did not want to go to finish the day 'the incredible' they worked tirelessly to fulfill the plan according to which the first 747


see the light in 1969 all gathered at one point in the plant when the first section arrived and the work of housing assembly was when it started with the huge wings to be assembled in their joined the gigantic central section built in titanium the rooms in


arrows have an angle of 37 degrees a length of 36 meters and a half 8 width and a thickness of 2.1 meters in its base.............. each of which carries 52,000 rivets then the top was placed of the fuselage to complete the section central the plant has 26 elevated cranes


that move through a network of 63 kilometers of rails the capacity of these cranes are 860 thousand kilos music subsequently added the nose and the front of the fuselage c the 747 was the first aircraft designed with the cockpit higher than the cabin of passengers remaining to nine


meters height. the idea was to have the maximum space free to get it they had to remove the cockpit so they decided to move it towards up came the turn to the part rear of the fuselage where install the kitchen and toilets the aircraft frame was completed with


the tail cone the rudder and the ailerons and the tail of the plane is at a height similar to that of a building of six plants once the fuselage of the airplane was assembled the train was installed landing for the big bird left the plant for his foot the landing gear consists of four


retractable system is four-wheel each plus one of two wheels located in the part of the antenna at this point were added the cargo holds and soil systems as well as {0}{/0}{1}{/1} {2}maintenance{/2} finally, the antennas of radar and gates of the train


landing as advance progress the project was presented an overweight problem the changes made to the original design led to an increase in alarming the total weight of the airplane of the initial 249 thousand 475 kg happened to 322,000 the incredible gets let's work.


using titanium alloys instead of other heavy materials the use of 3,800 kilos of titanium is a saving weighing more than one tonne nobody is working and the project keep going. the last step is the installation of motors jt 93 pratt and whitney capable of developing 19


thousand 730 kilos of thrust each one once all the components have been installed are tested over and over again its always daughter the fuselage to check once plus its resistance when it is completed the testing phase the bird is carried to the painting hangar where a thousand and liters of paint adds 544 kilos of weight at 747


finally the customer's logo and its distinctive colors in 1969 only there was one question left unanswered about the 747 will fly at 11 34 february 9, 1969 the question had answer a resounding yes after the usual set-up period essential in any development of a new aircraft 747 officially entered in


service on january 22, 1970 the 747 has been the biggest boast of boeing company imagination even higher than the 777 that was developed later but providing of better technology however at that time developing the 747 was a real achievement since the first prototype saw the


light in 1969 there have been more than 1,300 units of the 747 even 30 years later this plane is still the gibson icon largest in the world since will start to provide its services been used by 1.6 billion passengers and has traveled more than 32 thousand 186 million


kilometers equivalent to 42 thousand round trips to the moon then the pioneers of the jet engines the engineer and the test pilot the wright brothers flew for the first time time in december 1903, providing the airplanes of a piston engine of internal combustion


for almost two decades these engines were the only ones used by the builders who have been improving with time however in the decade of the 40s any increase in the power of the engines meant unwanted increases in fuel weight and maintenance in the war on year 42 or 43 piston engines is


they could no longer be larger than united states developed engines of 3 thousand 500 horsepower in the tense they were too complex and the power-to-weight ratio was no longer good the propeller of a motor turns to great speed logically approaches the speed the sound much before the wings of the


airplane when this happens whole vibrates offering a great resistance to air by eliminating propeller of the equation we are allowing the plane not to can fly faster and that the engine can develop more powers in that time in england and germany there were two men who separately


working in a technology that revolutionize air travel the german was a young engineer called hans phone or heim and english was the raf officer frank whittle that technology was none other than the jet although the concept was not new the challenge was to apply it to aircraft


buffett were fran with the hard work and spent a lot of time on an engine at reaction that most people i thought it would not work but it worked at the same time in germany a man called the bottom heim did it see table 1 it turned out that they both invented the same at the same time


the most common variant of engines reaction are the turbojets when the air gives the engine its pressure increases thanks to a compressor located before the combustion chamber then the compressed air is mixture with vaporized fuel burning and exhaust gas jet when exiting it drives the motor forward


while moving the rear turbine and it rotates the compressor to which it is joined by a whittall axis it was not easy for him to british government, you take your jet engine franz michael was a man extraordinary although somewhat irascible he often lost his patience


defending the idea of ​​the engine to reaction from the beginning of the 30 and its government without reaching ridicule ignore him and not lend due attention meanwhile forum heim counted quickly with the interest and support of one of the main builders german aeronautics bird henkel in


1936 henkel financed the development of a prototype of the phono engine by 1939 his invention was already part of a german plane with wings in arrow and in august of the same year a month earlier of the invasion of poland the h 178 became the first aircraft to reaction of the world the british government finally started


to support whittle's work that drew the attention of a general of the air forces the united states in march 1941 general was already in england conducting a research visit the united states had not yet entered the war but looked for the way of helping the british to


contemplate the motor of witt the arnold he saw the possibility of lending his help england and at the same time his country would enter the era of propulsion to the jet agreed with the the british government to let the whittle w12 to general electric corporation in lynn massachusetts


his idea was that manufacturers aeronautical authorities could investigate the engine as a collaboration with britain i go or other manufacturers were invited to study w1 and present projects to incorporate into an airplane of fast and long viable combat scope


six years later i will apply their knowledge in the bomber b 47 47 was the most important bomber of the history from there were born in 707 kc 135 the b 52 and all the designs of boing witt engine design it was not the only thing that made the b 47 a plane


revolutionary also influenced access by beret german technology of the rooms in arrow after the war and for last wind tunnel boing boing started with the b 47 that cost $ 13 million the best investment in history your waves had an angle of 35


degrees the thousands of tests in the tunnel good wind realized that as one line approaches the speed ​​of sound along its leading edge is created an air layer that increases the resistance but if the wing penetrates the air will diagonally do so with more


ease by delaying the formation of that harmful air layer states united states had surpassed england in the production of large aircraft military years in the years following war the british were determined to be the first to develop a commercial jet the reaction was that the moment the north american daghlas


aircraft company dominated the skies with its c3 with piston engines these aircraft accounted for 90% of the traffic world air the americans seemed content with developing jets exclusively military in 1949 the havilland aircraft company caused a sensation in the world of


aviation with the presentation of a elegant prototype of 28 with three meters in length at angled arrows of 20 degrees and two motors designed by whittall in each one of them was baptized with the name of havilland comet could carry 36 passengers and six crew members at a speed of


cruiser of 800 kilometers hour 50% faster than the most powerful of the piston engines three years later in 1952 he entered service the first of the comet but in only two years crashed two 163.01 - aircraft after extensive investigations determined that the cause of


accidents had been a explosive decompression comet had the square windows 7 of course was not the most appropriate in a square window the limit of fatigue can be achieved more easily than in a round and in fact that is what they happened to the eats were produced small fissures at the edges of the glass and


such as blowing up a bag of plastic the enormous difference in pressure between the exterior and the interior he broke it into a thousand pieces during the time they needed to recover the americans got the leadership and never went back to lose it


americans develop the first successful commercial reactor during the prosperous 50's after war increased the purchasing power of americans could now afford fulfill more desires and one of them was travel in 1951 the president of boeing william allen moved to england


with your best engineers to attend to one of the first test flights of the comet was impressed by the basic concept but thought that the the scale of the airplane was wrong. good to see the plane decided to enter the business boyle engineers told their bilateral president in which not only


could develop a plane to they would build one better than the cob allen knew that the jets were the future but still showed all the boeing of previous commercial transport operations had failed to lose money with 37 7 and 47 convents were simply outside intelligence


on the other hand dallas was very successful airlines loved it they had a great relationship and all they flew with the 3 of 4 16 and 17 to boeing favor was the experience of have developed bombers b 47 and b52 however allen knew that the company could not survive so only with military contracts


the 22 of april of 1952 allie decided to risk invested 15 million dã³lares the fourth part of the assets of the corporation in the development of the new commercial plane was originally called 3 86 80 but later it was renamed 707 failure would mean


bankruptcy but success would bring great benefits and become in leader of a new market havilland's mistakes taught boeing that the fuselage should be capable enduring hundreds of cycles of pressurizing what they did was build a large water tank of 30 meters long 6 wide and six meters long


depth built the fuselage and plunged into the tank and pumped and extracted water for a time to to simulate flight cycles based on the information obtained developed a series of new criteria for aircraft design pressurized live and that's how it all started


remembering what they had learned building those great bombers boeing engineers designed the commercial aircraft with the 35-degree angled wings and instead of placing the room on the fuselage made a new design of the 70 7 was designed to carry 130 passengers by multiplying


by three the capacity of the comet its four turbojets were installed in gondolas instead of being incorporated into the fuselage this design prevents a possible engine fire can spread to the cabin its cruising speed is 861 kilometers and passed four thousand 240 hours in the tunnel of


wind the fuselage is reinforced with plugs titanium anti-fissures to prevent stress fracture in nothing if the fuselage suffers a crack obviously you do not want to happen catastrophe and you want to avoid the they add in the design what they call tampons now on july 15,


1954 tested the first 707 and surpassed the test between the praises of the pilots in 1955 air force ordered 29 units of the but there were still no orders for business lines some customers finally appeared but suddenly out of nowhere the dagas aircraft company made a


amazing announcement they were planning to build a similar chef called dc-8 the cunning donald a glass had waited for boeing finish your work for communicate to airlines that dc-8 would be bigger than 70 7 with rows of 600 instead of five the 18 was nicknamed the paper plane because they were selling it when


was being designed in them but more interesting is that such was the appreciation of airlines for douglas so much confidence that everyone wanted to buy the dc-8 even when had not yet been built and although already had a 70 7 thousand allen of the boeing had invested too much allow class to raise with the


triumph while continuing to sell his 707 original ordered its engineers which widens in the fuselage 40 centimeters and will install more jt 4 engines the second version of the 707 was called intercontinental and in fact it was was the first commercial jet to perform long distance flights


that plane captivated the public and commercial airlines and pruned football people could not believe the calm aboard the plane the softness with which he flew never had seen similar progress in commercial air transport was something brand new since boeing had triumphed


while in dallas accelerates the production of your paper airplane knowing that they had to do well to the first to the tight calendar almost ruined the company unfortunately to pay them they had the right direction was an older company and had transition problems the 18 almost


overflows once conquered the market transcontinental for the 70 7 and 18 the airlines began to to ask for airplanes that could offer cheaper flights between main cities of europe and united states aircraft that could use airports with runways


too small for 70 7 i would say that the question was that in small reactors at that time they were not profitable the real challenge for the industry was to create a jet plane more small by european manufacturers tried to flood the market with several designs that included less than


100 seats but soon became evident that greater capacity is needed load and more power at least in the united states and insisted that the plane worked very well but outside denver united it was great importance of seeing that you are an altitude of 1,600 meters so land and take off in that


city ​​is very different from doing it at sea ​​level as in seattle angels the thin denver atmosphere requires more power at takeoff airports with small clues like the guard demanded planes capable of landing and take off in a small space the airlines wanted a plane that


solve both problems nobody i want to finish the airline had its own united requirements that i wanted a small plane so the short-haul flights would result in cheaper or exist also wanted four engines and fister wanted two boeing was engaging in a commitment greater difficulty is that the


aircraft of the eastern had to take off from guard new york in one track of 1,500 meters and fly up miami nonstop to a thousand boeing engineers study more 150 different designs and evaluated the requests from airlines on 1 december 1960, the president of boeing co illegal in re-entered


scene and finally decided to bet one of the designs would receive the name of 727 the plane used the same fuselage that the 70 7 carried 120 passengers in rows of six seats had three engines the new jt8d turbojets capable of develop six thousand 800 kilos of thrust each point could raise without


problems to a 7 7 in the sky of denver a configuration of three engines has obvious advantages over a of four the elimination of an engine considerably cuts the cost and is an important saving of combustible total annual profit but what really stood out from the 7 27


was the design of his wings the wings of a 72 7 are elegant at the same time as aerodynamic and allow you to fly high speed in its unique design include the retractable flaps of triple slot with which the airplane increase the surface area of ​​your 25 per cent at the time of take off or land


this allowed him to use more clues {0}14){/0} {1}â â  {/1} {0}cut...?{/0}i cut chicken. was the first time in the history of aviation in which the flaps and that was just what i needed the plane is like when we see a bird perch we see many feathers well when you land a 72 7 you see a lot of feathers


when the 27 of 27 was released on november 29, 2016 boing engineers found that it was 15 knots faster than which was envisaged in the wind tunnel consumed 10 percent less than fuel and could carry more charge 2 shortly after entering service on 7


27 had earned the nickname of the pilot plane the sensitivity of their controls was more similar to that of those small fighter jets than the one of a large commercial airliner however that same reputation would cause some problems to the new airplane after 19 months in service the 727


accidents began four in eight months the ghost of the comet began to prowl by boyle's offices civil aviation ordered a exhaustive investigation of the facts in all cases the verdict was the the pilot had misjudged the descent being carried away by the


instinct these discoveries served as sad reminder of the first thing must learn a pilot who reactors are piloted according to the manual no by instinct recovered reputation site 27 would remain active to become one of the most commercial jets


sold out of history when it stopped manufactured in 1984 had been sold 1,721 units then the size against the speed the jumbo faces with cork from the mid sixties increasingly have been those who have fought for a piece of cake air transport profitability is


computes by subtracting the value of the tickets sold at the cost of fuel and maintenance and in the heart of this equation is found the engine power in 1965 daghlas aircraft introduced the first twin- the dc-9 had 90 seats and engines were in the rear daghlas had improved


the design of the tail giving the director great stability the dc-9 used two jt8d pratt motors and whitney this gave him an autonomy of 3,100 kilometers and an advantage economic growth over 72 7 of three reactors the airlines were impressed and the orders started


only a great advantage and inevitably gave way to the planes we know today 757 767 777 grandi reactor because i engines is very low in the 1960s, the use of computers had a major impact on the design and operation of aircraft perhaps the most remarkable is the


development of autopilot capable to fly the plane alone analyzing the information obtained by numerous sensors the computer control of the flight adjust the controls and the operation of the motor to reach optimal altitude levels speed and fuel consumption the processing capacity of the computer


allows you to pilot the plane with a accuracy and achievability for a human being. however no computer has been able to replace in hazardous situations instinct and the knowledge of a experienced pilot sixty they also witnessed the birth of two of the most


significant and controversial they have flown 1 speed records but not would be profitable and the other would establish a new standard of size in the world of aeronautics in if the aviation of france and british air france corporation joined efforts


to produce a commercial aircraft capable to fly at twice the speed of the sound bach 2.2 or what is the same about two thousand 334 km area of ​​soon london was less than three and a half hours of new york this hang glider was called with kohl the power of the doctor resides in


its four olympus rear motors by a total thrust of 68 thousand kilos twice as much as a 70 7 however the birth of the agreement was delayed by political disputes and multiple design changes eight years would pass before the first prototype was ready for fly the airplane news


supersonic impact to the other side of the atlantic in the states united for my good they had united their forces to create the first jumbo jet wide body the 747 what many did not know is that from the beginning the 747 had been conceived as a cargo plane the breadth of its interior had not


been designed for the comfort of your passengers but in order to be able to total of 64 containers later models were designed by a front flap for which introduce the burden so much concern for the transport of goods was due to the arrival of the concorde many aerospace professionals


trade of the time were convinced that all passengers they would take the airplanes with the rest of the subsonic aircraft including the 747 relegated to other functions time would show that they were wrong the problem of supersonic flights


it is not in the concept itself everything the one who travels across the ocean peacefully wants to reach the problem is that the necessary technology is too expensive and has no enough to stay behind the boeing company a instances of government began to work on your own design


supersonic even when the 747 was in phase of production in march 1969 leads to cabo in toulouse france the first flight of the concorde agenda had been delayed and above the planned budget the concorde had hundreds of millions of dollars lost


for research and development but they could never recover what was invested and they had known for a long time and could have saved money for the project but pride was at stake national the airlines moved away from than the 118-seater plane having to the sale of tickets does not cover


the expenses the designers increased their size to accommodate 136 passengers but the europeans did not take effect they tried everything to make their aircraft does not have claims like that if a 747 and a concorde to take off at the same time the concorde would have time to fly to


europe land load the passage and return to america before the 747 land in these demonstrations rather than helping them damage that the fuel used in your flight transatlantic was twice as large as used by a 7 07 some scientists stated that a


flight at that altitude could damage the ozone layer and another problem was the noise kind of people did not want to a supersonic plane flying over your house and break the windows of the windows the phenomenon known as boom sound occurs when an object is move so fast that it collides with your


own sound this produces an outburst similar to that of a thunder 21 signs that by the a solution can be found to this problem which would allow to fly over populated areas so that travel on water and cover long distances in that polar case is too expensive


was when the boeing sst was suspended or had not gone from being a model the agreement was relegated to high-charter flights services speed for the wealthiest although it will result in a financial puzzle europeans understood that they should join forces to compete with the americans


then we will enter into the future of commercial aviation after more than 20 years leading the commercial air transport market boeing woke up one day to check that his situation had changed complete period was known as the war of the wide fuselages daghlas aircraft in california and the


mcdonnell aircraft of san luis se merged to create the band in elda glass corporation of this union was born the bc 10 a jet with capacity for 380 passengers and across the ocean arrived the a300 of the airbus industrie airbus was born about 30 years ago as result of the union of several european manufacturers that after competing


one with another found that none had gained money not all build good aircraft but understood that the only to be competitive with the american giant was uniting its forces and made watchmen tremble forces as airbus was gaining ground


mcdonnell douglas was starting to the 10 dancers staggered series of accidents and the public lost confidence in them the plane was doomed later was redesigned and christened md-11 to the end of the eighties i just go and airbus were serious airbus contenders was gradually being done with the


market by using best european designers and latest advances in information technology last 20 years airbus has developed a line of products covering practically all the current needs of airlines from small planes with barely 100 seats up to huge


four-engine reactors with capacity for more than 400 passengers airbus would soon make the competition 737 of boeing with its a330 a twin-engine capable of transporting 267 passengers this would follow the a340 with four engines and capacity for 376 passengers a tough rival for the boeing 767 that he fought to defend his market


the giant's first reaction american was to widen the fuselage of 767 but the idea was discarded later in 1990 boheme returned to take risks and decided to design an entire new family of airplanes your name would be 777 and was the most ambitious company since 747 the technology used would change the


the way in which work had been now the 777 would become the largest birreactor ever built with capacity for 550 passengers the design was carried out in a computer system called katy to a system composed of seven thousand workstations distributed over the 17 time zones


allowed us to design the plane using three-dimensional models with which we could assemble everything from air france plane all modules all conduits the layout of the cables all the plane i was on the computer with the network workstations that made a team of designers and manufacturers of


everybody could work simultaneously in the same space three-dimensional for the first time an airplane had been completely designed by computer then the 777 was a project of five billion dollars ten thousand engineers and five years to accommodate the line of


production boeing facilities should grow significantly overcame the largest building in the world at 230,000 cubic meters using enough zero to building of the empire state building of to complete the project in 1994 needed the participation of 240 american companies and 11


countries that would build 20,000 parts needed to assemble the 777 the fuselage of 6.19 meters width was built on a skeleton of cross beams and ribs made of an aluminum alloy the exterior cladding was of a new aluminum alloy called 2 xxx the metal with more resistance than


has used in this application the critical point of any birreactor is the power of the engine and its reliability each of these engines would be able to to push 77 7 on its own in case that the other would fail the engine was the most powerful and built to date


for this, 777 counted on the pratt and whitney's participation rolls royce and fill the electric previously on our plane with more engine thrust was the 767 with 27 thousand kg we wanted the 777 to enter service with at least 33,500 with with a view to increasing it to 40


kilos each has a length of almost 61 meters and an area of ​​430 square meters i do not think the most outstanding element of the 777 is the advanced technology of its wings design is the most advanced of all commercial aircraft to develop their way we use our software emulator of fluid dynamics


we spent many hours in the tunnel wind to widget on 12 june 1994 the first a year later he received the prestigious kã¶hler award to the best aeronautical design many think boyle is back at the head of commercial jets but


how long it is moving and the experience of 777 seems to tell us that anyone who can face a challenge and overcome one can do it again in one future what will be the future larger size more how long will the 747 remain with his 30 years of age the king of the heavens at least one


answer us airbus industrie for 2006 the consortium plans to submit its 3 xx a larger two-story jumbo that the 74 7 747 is older than the airbus industrie it's time to build a new airplane taking advantage of the technology available that's what we're going to do with the a3 xx


with 10,500 million euros available the a3 xx can boast of its 555 seats and passages of three classes may to offer passengers luxury never seen in an airline as gyms theaters and other attractions in your made debut is left to choice of the airline add other entertainments if you want to put


some living rooms or use the lower cabins such as bedrooms include some stores or other services they want to offer their passengers and chus will become a3 xx in a standard for the next 35 years only time and technology knows an alternative is in the phase of


development in the space center of the nasa in langley virginia this futuristic superjumbo is known like bwb initials in english from fuselage with the built-in hang gliding designers are looking for means of transporting 800 passengers to across the ocean at 900 kilometers (per hour)


many experts claim that the design of airports will have to change constantly while they continue producing these large and fast advances in size and capacity commercial aviation has long way in no time one of the reasons for this explosion technology has been a tough


world competition in which players from all over the world participate that was only the union of all competitors in the future. no room for competition some experts predict that the two giants will and airbus will join forming an international monopoly while that future comes the only thing that


we can do is look back and to check how commercial aircraft have changed our world we have led many of us to distant lands and have led to exchange of ideas trade and culture